Lunar energy is usually considered feminine and is generally associated with the goddess. It is most often the basis for timing in magick. Many things in our environment are affected by the moon's phases, the tides for example, so it makes sense that magickal practices are affected by it also. It is best to work with the moon's energies in ritual, rather than against it.
Waxing moon (new moon to full moon) is for increasing.
Waning moon(after full moon until the new moon) is for decreasing, The New moon can be used for protection, new beginnings, etc.
The Full Moon is basically all purpose. It is the strongest time for any working, especially, those that involve protection, divination, and psychic work.
Many pagans celebrate each new and full moon. This is called an esbat.
Some Herbs Associated with the moon:
Lily of The Valley
Some Deities Associated with the moon:
Traditional Names for the moon
January: Wolf Moon
February: Ice moon
March: Storm moon
April: Seed moon
May: Hare moon
June: Mead moon
July: Hay moon
August: Wort moon
September: Harvest moon
October: Blood moon *
November: Snow moon
December: Oak Moon
*This is referred to as blood moon traditionally, not because sacrifices or anything malignant is performed, but because historically this is when many people used to kill of all but the best and strongest of the herds due to lack of resources to feed them in the approaching winter season.